The course aims at presentation of modern methods of thinking applied in science and technology
1. INTRODUCTION. Ontological, psychological, semiotic, theory-cognitive terminology. Formal logic.
Philosophy of logic. Methodology vs. science. Science vs. logic.
2. PHENOMENOLOGICAL METHOD. Objectivity of phenomenologists. Return to "issue in itself", intuitive
cognition.
3. SEMIOTIC METHODS. Sign and its three dimensions. Formalism. Essence of formalism - calculation.
Application of calculation to non-mathematical subjects. Validation of formalism. Eidetic and operational
sense. Models. Artificial language. Syntactic rules of sense. Construction of language. Atomic and molecular
expressions. Notion of syntactic category. Functors and arguments. Examples of syntactic nonsense.
Semantic functions and levels Two semantic functions of sign. Designation and significance. Semantic
levels. Language and meta-language. Semantic meaning and verifiability. Rule of verifiability. Verification
levels: technical possibility, physical possibility, logical possibility, transempirical possibility. Principle of
intersubjectivity. Verifiability of general clauses.
4. AXIOMATIC METHOD. Structure of indirect cognition. Law and rule. Two basic forms of inference:
deduction and reduction. Reliable and unreliable rules of inference. Concept of axiomatic system. Structure
of axiomatic clause system. Requirements for axiomatic system. Constitutional system. Progressive and
regressive deduction. Mathematical logic. Methodological significance. Implication and derivability. Definition
and creation of concepts. Basic types of definition. Real and nominal definitions. Syntactic and semantic
definitions. Analytical and synthetic definitions. Types of syntactic definitions: clear definitions, contextual
definitions, recursive definitions, definitions by axiomatic system. Semantic deictic definitions. Real
definitions. Application of axiomatic method. Axiomatization of logic of Hilbert-Ackermann clauses.
5. REDUCTION METHODS. Historical introductory remarks. Concept and division of reduction. Concept of
verification and explanation. Regressive reduction. Reduction sciences. Structure of natural sciences.
Observation clauses. Progress in natural sciences. Verification of hypotheses. Experience and thinking.
Types of explanatory sentences. Causal explanation and teleological explanation. Co-occurrence laws and
functional laws. Deterministic laws and statistical laws. Authentic and non-authentic induction. Division of
induction. Primary and secondary induction. Qualitative and quantitative induction. Deterministic and
statistical induction. Enumerative and eliminatory induction. Postulates of determinism, closed system,
relationship between laws, simplicity.
J. M. Bocheński, Współczesne metody myślenia, wydawnictwo "Wdrodze", Poznań (1992)
Supplementary Literature
K. Popper, Logika odkrycia naukowego, PWN (1983)
M. Grzegorczyk, Logika matematyczna, PWN (1979)